Responsibilities of the QA Manager/QA Lead.
Role of QA Manager includes:
- Manage project from initiation through closure
- Test planning
- Obtain customer acceptance of the deliverables
- Approve intermediate deliverables and patch releases to the client
- Submit effort inputs for billing
- Issue Management
- Mentoring, coaching and off-shore team management
- Submit reports for weekly status to the test coordinators
- Participating in weekly review meetings
- Publish KPIs for all testing projects on a weekly basis
- Resource mobilization for projects
What is your approach if you find that the testers in your organization are performing a test on the deliverable even after significant defect have been identified?
As a QA Lead, your approach should be:
- Acceptance criteria should be tightened
- Test cases should be re-evaluated
- More test cases should be added if possible, with equivalence class partition cases and boundary values
- More test cases should be added to check invalid conditions.
- Show Stopper criteria should be modified.
What is Requirement Traceability Matrix?
Requirement Traceability Matrix is a document linking requirements to test cases. It is used:
- To ensure that all the application requirements are tested in the verification process
- To check Test Coverage.
How would you select a Testing tool for your project?
- Identify the features required in an automation tool as per the project needs.
- Evaluate commercial and non-commercial tools that meet the requirements.
- Estimate the cost and benefit of the tool. Cost could include licenses and training.
- Make the final decision in consultation with team members.
What are some key challenges in a Testing Project?
Key challenges of software testing include:
- The Testing phase is usually under a time constraint.
- Understanding the requirements can sometimes be a challenge.
- The application should be stable enough to be tested – Setting priorities for testing.
- Lack of skilled testers.
- Regression Testing.
- Frequent Requirements changing.
- Lack of tools, resource, and training.
What is a Test Plan?
The test plan is a document describing the activities and the testing scope. It is the basic requirement for testing any software product.
What are types of the test plan?
There are three main types of Test Plan:
- Master Test Plan.
- Testing level specific Test Plan.
- Testing type specific test plans.
What people skills should a Test Manager/QA Lead have?
- Effective and clear communication.
- Should build a good relationship with team members.
- Good listening skills and emotional intelligence.
- Motivate team members.
- Resolve conflicts and ethical issues.
What is ‘Configuration Management’?
- Configuration Management covers the processes used to coordinate, control, and track test artifacts.
- The could include test cases, scenarios and sets, automation code, requirements, documentation, issues, designs, change requests, etc.
What is the PDCA model?
The PDCA model stands for:
- Plan: Identify improvements and set targets.
- Do: Implement improvements.
- Check: Check result of improvements.
- Act: Learn from results.
- It is a Test Process Improvement (TPI) method.
What are informal reviews?
An informal review is a way of checking for defects without running code. Informal reviews are implemented many times during the initial stages of the test life cycle of the document. Informal reviews are not documented.
What are the types of Risk in a Test Project.
The types of Risk in a Test Project can be broadly categorized as:
- Strategy Risk: This includes Budget, Communication and Management risks.
- Project Definition Risks: This includes Project target, Scope, and requirements risks.
- Human Resources Risk: This includes Skill, Team members and organization risks.
- Project Schedule Risks.
What are the countermeasures that QA manager should take against risks?
Test Manager/QA Lead must take the following steps to mitigate the risk:
- Avoidance: Eliminate the risk factor that is involved.
- Reduction: Mitigation plan to decrease the impact of risks and to take corrective measures.
- Sharing: Transfer the risk to another resource such as insource or insure.
- Accept: Accept the risk and prepare a planned budget for these risks.
Explain how Test Manager/QA Lead can estimate the project and what to estimate?
During Test Estimation, a Test Manager/QA Lead must evaluate four areas:
- Human Skills.
Project estimations can be done using the following models:
- Work breakdown structure (WBS): Breaking down the project into smaller segments.
- Three-point estimation: Three-point estimation is based on statistical data.
- Functional point method: Give weight to each function and measure the size.
What is three-point estimation?
In the three-point estimation, three values are initially produced for every task based on previous experience.
For example, to complete a specific task the different possibilities are:
- Best case scenario, i.e.: 120 man-hours or 15 days with experienced team members.
- The most likely scenario, i.e.: 170 hours or 21 days with enough resources and moderately experienced team members.
- The worst-case scenario, i.e.: 200 man-hours or 25 days and with less experienced team members.
What are the best practices for test estimation?
Some of the best practices for Test Estimation are:
- Adding some buffer time: Having a buffer time is always an advantage, it may help to deal with a delay caused due to unexpected reason like talented member quits the job suddenly.
- Account resource planning in estimation: Make sure that your estimation is realistic and considered crucial factors like availability of human resources.
- Use the past experience reference: Through your past experience try to avoid all the obstacles or possible hindrance that are most likely to happen.
- Stick to your estimation: Estimation is not full proof. It may go wrong also. In the early phase of the project, you should re-check the test estimation and if required make modifications as well.
What does a good test report include?
A good test report should include:
- Project Information.
- Test Objective.
- Test Summary.
List out some of the software quality assurance best practice?
Some of the best practices for software Quality Assurance includes:
- Continuous Improvement.
- Tool usage and automation.
- Teamwork and shared responsibility for SQA
By what factors you can determine the quality of the test execution?
Two ways to determine the quality of test execution are:
- Defect rejection ratio: (No. of defects rejected/ total no. of defects raised) X 100 \
- Defect leakage ratio: (No. of defect missed/total defects of software) X 100
How will you manage Team Conflicts?
- With the diversity in backgrounds and working styles of team members, the first step is to expect and prepare for conflicts during the test project.
- The next step is to hold a meeting and appraise team members of the project status. The Test Manager/QA Lead needs to keep communication open for everyone such that the team frustrations and anger are vented out.
- Lastly, ask the team members to co-operate and stress the importance of their cooperation for the success of the project.